NEST 2021 Syllabus PDF ~ Download Exam Pattern @nestexam.in. National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) has going to conduct the examination of the National Entrance Screening Test 2021 for that they will Updates the Syllabus on the Official Site. The date of the Examination for NEST 2021 is the 14th of June 2021. Candidates can download Syllabus from our website.
NEST 2021 Syllabus PDF
|Board Name||National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER)|
|Name of the Exam||National Entrance Screening Test 2021|
|Result Date||30th of June 2021.|
NEST 2021 Exam Pattern:
|Name of the exam||NEST 2021|
|Mode of the exam||Pen and Paper based (offline) exam|
|Number of Papers||1|
|Number of Sections||5|
|Name of the Subjects||General Ability, Physics, Chemistry, Maths, and Biology|
|Type of Questions||Multiple Choice Questions (objective type)|
|Number of Questions||230 (180 marks –Maximum)|
|Duration of the exam||180 Minutes (3 hours)|
|Language of the exam||English|
NEST Syllabus 2021:
There is no specific syllabus for the General section. The aim is to test the candidate’s aptitude for a career in science. Questions are designed to test the candidate’s familiarity with (and not a detailed understanding of) major historical milestones in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, computer science, and the environment.
Cell Biology: Cell theory and cells as a unit of life. Basic concepts of biomolecules – Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic acids. Tools and techniques of cell studies – use of microscope and calibration (microscopy), elements of the microscope. Biomembranes – transport mechanism, cellular respiration.
Cell organelles – structure and functions. Discovery and structure of DNA, processes of replication, transcription, genetic code, and translation. Principles of the basic techniques in molecular biology. Enzymes– catalysis, kinetics, activation energy, competitive and non–competitive inhibition.
Genetics and Evolution
- Fundamentals of genetics and evolution. Evidences and theories of organic evolution. Organization of the heredity material in chromosomes. Equational division. Reduction division. Mitosis and meiosis compared and contrasted. Significance of meiosis. Mendel’s laws of inheritance.
- Discovery of linkage, sex-linked inheritance. Crossing–over, stage at which crossing–over occurs. Neurospora genetics. Mutation – discovery, types of Mutation, and Mutations in diploids. Role of mutations in evolution. Elaboration of Mendel’s laws of inheritance. Monohybrid or Dihybrid crosses. Human genetics – human chromosomes, sex–determination, sex-linked inheritance.
Physical and biological factors influencing organisms. Food chains, pyramids of numbers, and biomass. Biological equilibrium. Interspecific associations. Biodiversity. Flora and fauna. Basics of microbial systems, Ecosystems.
Humans and Environment
Soil, rainfall, and temperature with reference to natural resources. Our natural resources – their uses and abuses. Environmental pollution and preventive measures. Biodiversity and conservation.
Principles of recombinant DNA technology. Applications of biotechnology.
Biology of Animal systems
- Digestive System – Modes of nutrition. Different vitamin compounds and their deficiencies. Structure of alimentary canal and associated glands, digestive enzymes, and gastrointestinal hormones. Absorption of products of digestion, peristalsis, balanced diet.
- Respiratory System – Gaseous exchange in animals. Structure of respiratory organs, mechanism of breathing, gaseous transport, tissue respiration.
- Circulatory System – Open and closed systems. Functions of blood and 1ymph. The microscopic structure of blood and blood vessels. Structures and working of the heart. Distribution of arteries and veins. Circulation of blood coagulation. Blood groups.
- Excretory System – Elimination of nitrogenous waste. Osmoconformers and osmoregulators. Structure and function of kidney tubules. Arrangement of excretory organs.
- Nervous System – General account of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Reflex actions (simple and conditioned). Sense organs (eye and ear).
- Reproductive System – Sexual and asexual reproduction. General arrangement and functions of reproductive organs.
- Developmental Biology – Basic features of development in animals. Types of eggs, fertilization, cleavage, blastula. Stem cells– definition, types, uses advantages and disadvantages, induced pluripotent stem cells. Different hormones and their roles.
- Diversity of Animal Life — Principles of classification, binomial nomenclature. The general classification of animal phyla up to classes (invertebrates) and up to subclasses/order (vertebrates), General characters of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
- Immunology – Basics of immune mechanisms and diseases– active and passive immunity, T and B cell responses, antigen presentation, principles of vaccination, monoclonal antibodies and their uses, immunology of AIDS.
Biology of Plant systems
- Anatomy and Physiology of Plants – Meristems. Plant growth and development. Internal and external regulators of growth and development in plants. Plant reproduction. The internal structure of root, stem, secondary growth, and leaves. Xylem and Phloem – their cell elements and functions. The internal structure of dicot and monocot leaves. Photosynthesis – history, importance, factors and mechanism, stomatal mechanism, transpiration, and respiration. Comparative study of dicot and monocot anatomy.
- Absorption and cell–water relations, transport of water and minerals, tropic and turgor movements.
- Significance of life–cycles with special reference to the alternation of generations as exemplified in Funaria, Selaginella, and Pinus (no structural details). Plant hormones.
- Systematics – Principles of classical and new systematics. Binomial nomenclature. Familiarity with taxa.
- Plant breeding and tissue culture.
Measurements in chemistry: SI units for fundamental quantities, significant figures in calculations.
Mole concept: Avogadro number and mole concept, molar masses, mole fraction, molarity, molality, percent composition, stoichiometry. Equivalent weight and normality. Calculations based on mole concept and stoichiometry of different reactions. Oxidation-reduction reactions.
Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale of temperature. Gas laws, ideal gas equation, real gases and deviation from ideality, liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation. Kinetic theory of gases; average, root mean square, and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature. Law of partial pressures. Vapour pressure. Diffusion of gases.
Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Bohr model, the spectrum of the hydrogen atom, quantum numbers. Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis. Uncertainty principle. Orbitals and quantum numbers; shapes and energy of s, p, and d orbitals.
Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36), filling of orbitals – Aufbau principle. Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule. Hybridization involving s, p, and d orbitals. Atomic orbital overlap and chemical bonds; ionic, covalent, and coordinate bonds; bond parameters. Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species.
Lewis structures. Hydrogen bond. Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects). VSEPR theory and shapes of molecules. Valence Bond Theory. Molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea).
Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic states. The first law of thermodynamics. Internal energy, work, and heat, pressure-volume work. Enthalpy and enthalpy change, Hess’s law, the heat of – reaction, fusion, and vaporization. The second law of thermodynamics, entropy, free energy, the criterion of spontaneity.
Chemical equilibrium: Laws of chemical Equilibrium, the law of mass action. Equilibrium constant – factors affecting equilibrium constant and its applications. Le Chatelier’s principle – effect of concentration, temperature, and pressure.
Significance of ΔG and ΔGo in chemical equilibrium. Relationship of K and ΔG. Ionic equilibrium. Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts), salts. Ka, Kb, Kw, degree of dissociation, pH, and their relationships. Solubility product, common ion effect. Hydrolysis of salts. Buffer solutions.
Electrochemistry: Redox reactions and electrode potential, Electrochemical cells, Galvanic cells, and cell reactions. Standard electrode potential. Nernst equation and its relation to ΔG and K. Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells.
Electrolysis and Faraday’s laws of electrolysis. Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent, and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s law. Concentration cells. Batteries (primary and secondary), fuel cells, corrosion.
Chemical kinetics: Rates of chemical reactions. Order of reaction, the rate constant. First-order and pseudo-first-order reactions. Factors affecting rate of reaction – concentration, temperature (Arrhenius equation), catalyst.
Solid-state: Classification of solids, amorphous and crystalline solids, crystalline state, crystal lattice, and unit cells; seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, α, β, )), the close-packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices.
Packing efficiency, nearest neighbours, ionic radii. Simple ionic compounds, Imperfection in solids, point defects. Electrical and magnetic properties, band theory of metals.
Solutions: Solution of solid and gas in the liquid. The concentration of the solution. Ideal and nonideal solutions. Colligative properties. Vapour pressure of the solution, Raoult’s law. Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapor pressure, the elevation of boiling point, and depression of freezing point. Abnormal molecular mass, vant Hoff factor. Osmosis – Osmotic pressure, reverse osmosis.
(a) Adsorption – Physisorption and chemisorptions. Factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids. Adsorption isotherm. Catalysis – homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity. Enzyme catalysis. (b) Colloidal state – Types, preparation, and properties of colloids. Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation. Application of colloids. Micelles.
Classification of elements and periodicity in properties: Modern periodic table, classification of elements, periodic trends in properties of elements – valence, oxidation state, atomic/ionic radius, ionization energy, electron gain energy, electronegativity, valency, chemical reactivity. Diagonal relationship. Anomalous behaviors of Li, Be, B, C.
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